Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry

Determining Molarity:

Molarity and Volume:
(M1 is the molarity of solution one, which has a volume of V1. M2 is the molarity of solution two, which has a volume of V2.)
M1V1 = M2V2

Gas Laws

The Ideal Gas Law:
(P = pressure in atm, V = volume in liters, n = moles, R = 0.082058 L*atm/mol*K, T = temperature in Kelvins)
PV = nRT

Boyle's Law:PV = K

Charles Law:K = V/T

Derivative of the Ideal Gas Law:
(MW = molecular weight, d = density)
MW = dRT / P

Root Mean Square:
(R = 8.3145 J/ K * mol, M = mass of a mole of the gas in kg)

Rate of Effusion:

Van der Waal's Equation:

Thermochemistry:

(q = heat at constant temp) D E   = q + w

(w = work) W = -PDV

DH = DE + D(PV)

c = heat capacity

s = specific heat capacity
m = mass of solution

Relationship between frequency and wavelength
(c = 2.99979 x 108 m/s)

(n = integer, h = Planck's constant = 6.626 x 10-34 J*s)

Energy per photon:

Equation for special theory of relativity:

Calculating Zeff

de Broglie's equation:

Bonding:

(Q is charge of ions, r shortest distance between centers of the cations and anions)

Calculating lattice energy
(k is proportionality constant, Q is charge of ions, r = shortest distance between centers of the cations and anions)

Bond Order:

Formal Charge:

Liquids and Solids:
Clausius-Clapeyron equation
(R = 8.3145 J/K mol)

Solutions:
Molality:

Psoln:  vapor pressure of the solution
Xsolvent: mole fraction of solvent
Psolvent: vapro pressure of pure solvent

Mass Percent:

Modified osmotic pressure formula for electrolytes

Henry's Law
P: partial pressure of gaseous solute
C: concentration of dissolved gas
k: constant

Boiling point elevation
m: molality
Kb: constant

Freezing Point Depression
m: molality
Kf: constant

p: osmotic pressure
M: molarity
R: 0.082616 L*atm/K*mol

van't Hoff factor

Modified for electrolyte solutions
m: molality
K: freezing/boiling point constant

Chemical Kinetics:
 Zero Order First Order Second Order Rate Law Integrated Rate Law Half-life
General Rate Law:

Arrhenius Equation
the whole e^(stuff) equation represents the fraction of collisions with sufficient energy to produce a rxn

Derived Arrhenius Equation

Chemical Equilibrium:

Calculating Equilibrium Constant:

Dn = coefficients of gaseous products - coefficients gaseous reactants

Acids and Bases:

Equilibrium Expressions:
HA <--> H+ + A-

% Dissociation

Spontaneity, Gibbs Free Energy:

Gibbs Free Energy: