Types of
Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry


Determining Molarity:  

Molarity and Volume:
(M_{1} is the molarity of solution one, which has a volume of V_{1}.
M_{2} is the molarity of solution two, which has a volume of V_{2}.)

M_{1}V_{1} = M_{2}V_{2}


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Gas Laws


The Ideal Gas Law:
(P = pressure in atm, V = volume in liters, n = moles, R = 0.082058 L*atm/mol*K,
T = temperature in Kelvins)
 PV = nRT 

Boyle's Law:  PV = K 

Charles Law:  K = V/T 

Derivative of the Ideal Gas Law:
(MW = molecular weight, d = density)
 MW = dRT / P 

Root Mean Square:
(R = 8.3145 J/ K * mol, M = mass of a mole of the gas in kg)
 

Rate of Effusion:  

Van der Waal's Equation:  

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Thermochemistry:


(q = heat at constant temp) 
D E = q + w


(w = work) 
W = PDV



DH = DE + D(PV)


c = heat capacity  

s = specific heat capacity
m = mass of solution  

Relationship between frequency and wavelength
(c = 2.99979 x 10^{8} m/s)
 

(n = integer, h = Planck's constant = 6.626 x 10^{34}
J*s)
 

Energy per photon:  

Equation for special theory of relativity:  

Calculating Z_{eff}  

de Broglie's equation:  

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Bonding:


(Q is charge of ions, r shortest distance between centers of
the cations and anions)  

Calculating lattice energy
(k is proportionality constant, Q is charge of ions, r = shortest distance
between centers of the cations and anions)
 

 

Bond Order:  

Formal Charge:  

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Liquids and
Solids:

ClausiusClapeyron equation
(R = 8.3145 J/K mol)
 

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Solutions:

Molality:  

Psoln: vapor pressure of the solution
Xsolvent: mole fraction of solvent
Psolvent: vapro pressure of pure solvent  

Mass Percent:  

Modified osmotic pressure formula for electrolytes  

Henry's Law
P: partial pressure of gaseous solute
C: concentration of dissolved gas
k: constant
 

Boiling point elevation
m: molality
Kb: constant
 

Freezing Point Depression
m: molality
Kf: constant
 

p: osmotic pressure
M: molarity
R: 0.082616 L*atm/K*mol
 

van't Hoff factor  

Modified for electrolyte solutions
m: molality
K: freezing/boiling point constant
 


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Chemical
Kinetics:


Zero Order 
First Order 
Second Order 
Rate Law 



Integrated Rate Law 



Halflife 




General Rate Law:  

Arrhenius Equation
the whole e^(stuff) equation represents the fraction of collisions with sufficient energy
to produce a rxn
 

Derived Arrhenius Equation  

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Chemical
Equilibrium:


Calculating Equilibrium Constant:  

Dn = coefficients of gaseous
products  coefficients gaseous reactants
 


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Acids and
Bases:


Equilibrium Expressions:
HA <> H^{+} + A^{}
 

 

 

 

% Dissociation  

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Spontaneity,
Gibbs Free Energy:


 

 

 

Gibbs Free Energy:  

 

 

 

 

 

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Electrochemistry:


 

n = number of moles of electrons transferred  

Nernst Equation
F = faraday's constant
n = number of electrons
 
