The atomic number (designated by the symbol Z)
represents the number of protons in the nucleus. In an element, which never has a charge,
the number of protons equals the number of electrons. The mass number (A)
is the sum of neutrons and protons in the nucleus. Therefore, A - Z
equals the number of neutrons in a nucleus.
1. Cyclotron - A particle is accelerated through a particle accelerator and is
penetrated into the nucleus.
2. Linear Accelerator - particles accelerated by magnetic fields bombards the nucleus.
Fission isthe splitting of a heavy nuclide into two smaller nuclides.
Excess neutrons and energy is produced in the reaction. For a chain reaction, the emitted
neutrons split nearby nuclides that produce a self-sustaining reaction.
Types of Fission reactions
Subcritical: less than one neutron splits one nuclide (This
reaction will not be self-sustaining.In order to be self-sustaining, at least one neutron
must go on to split another nuclide)
Critical: one neutron splits one nuclide
Supercritical: more than one neutrons splits one nuclide
Fusion-combining two smaller nuclides to form one heavy nuclide.